Immigration Costs: Colwell v. Dept. of Health & Human Services, 558 F.3d 1112 (9th Cir. 2009)

Aside from the cost of border patrol agents, Immigration Judges, detention facilities, jails, prisons (state and federal), prosecutors and public defenders (state and federal), district court judges, Court of Appeal Judges and staff, border construction, Coast Guard personnel, police officers, sheriff’s deputies, California Highway Patrol officers, hospitals and ER doctors, a federal statute and implementing federal regulations requires a physician to provide free translation services to limited English proficient persons. Non compliance results in loss of federal funding; Title VI; citations and regulations omitted; Colwell v. Dept. of Health & Human Services; 558 F.3d 1112 (9th Cir. 2009. Who has computed these costs to taxpayers?